The Knee Joint
The goals of reconstructive surgery of the knee in
Adults pay for one to get optimal performance, minimize disability, and remove pain. All joints of the lower extremity Participation in locomotion. Pathological conditions that affect the knee affect normal daily activities and the ability
to go. The wide spectrum of pathological conditions Effects on soft tissue injuries of the knee include Band structure, stability, meniscus offer Injuries and arthritic diseases. This chapter focuses mainly due to the degenerative arthritis conditions, Impact on the knee in adults. Ligament and meniscus Injuries are discussed in Chap. 17th The number of Patients with pain and disability of arthritic conditions the knee is increasing, as are the expectations of who wants to maintain an active lifestyle. Approx. 300 000 knee replacements per year in
the United States. The goal in treating these diseases is To improve mobility and function while minimizing
The knee is formed 5 to 7 weeks of pregnancy. The combined distal femur and proximal tibial growth
Plates one by about 65 percent of growth at the lower extremity. The proximal tibial physis accounts for
60 percent of the tibial growth. The distal femoral physis contributes to 70 percent of the femoral growth. Link
Growth is completed in about 13 to 15 years Age in women and from 16 to 18 years in men.
Gross Anatomy The knee has a rich anastomotic vascular network. The descending genicular artery branches from the femoral Artery before it crosses the adductor muscles break and gives rise branch on the joint surfaces (crosses the vastus medialis) and the vein branch (between the vastus
medialis and the sartorius m. with the vena Nerve). The superior medial and superior genus
genus lateral branch of the popliteal artery and around the distal femur pass superficial to the origins
of the gastrocnemius. The average genus Artery branches from the popliteal artery and penetrates
the posterior capsule to supply the cruciate ligaments. The inferior medial genicular artery branches from the
Popliteal artery and courses deep to the hamstring and the medial collateral ligament around
2 cm distal to the joint line. The lower lateral genus Artery runs immediately adjacent to the lateral joint line
deep to the lateral collateral ligament. The genus Artery passing anterior to the knees at peripatellar
Anastomosis with additional contributions from the descending branch of lateral circumflex femoral
Anterior tibial artery and circumflex artery recurrent Peroneal artery. While a standard medial parapatellar
Approach to the knee, the superior medial, inferior medial genus and lower lateral arteries are affected.
The knee has afferent fibers from the N. tibial, N. peroneal nerve, posterior branch of the obturator
Nerves, and N. femoralis. The rear link- Nerve branches from the N. tibial, piercing of the superior diagonal band, with the average genus A.